Thursday, December 3, 2009

Nero Glossary

The Audio Interchange File Format is an uncompressed audio file format from Apple® and represents a sort of counterpart to the WAV format from Microsoft. Files are larger than when using a compressed format, but the quality is higher. AIFF compressed is the com-pressed variation.
Archive Bit
Archive bits are used to identify files that have been edited. A file is only resaved during the next backup process if it was edited (and an archive bit is thus reset).
Blu-ray technology refers to burning on special data carriers. In comparison to DVD's, which use a red laser in order to read and write data, Blu-ray discs are written with a blue laser. The shorter wavelength (405 nm) of this blue laser makes it possible to position the laser with greater accuracy. Data can be written in a more compact manner and takes up less space on the disc. A Blu-ray disc can store up to 25 GB on a single layer disc and up to 50 GB on a dual layer disc.
Book Type
The book type defines the specification (e.g. DVD-, DVD+, DVD-ROM) of a DVD. In order to ensure correct playback, the DVD specifications are defined in books so that all media can be read correctly. The specifications are defined in the so-called Rainbow Books, which are distinguished by means of their color (e.g. Yellow Book).
Bootable CD
Booting refers to loading the operating system when a computer is started. This is normally done from the hard drive. However, if you do not want to boot or cannot boot your computer from your hard drive for whatever reason, you can load an operating environment from the drive with a boot CD.
A buffer refers to temporary memory that records and delivers data that cannot be processed immediately as required. The buffer also allows for continuous data flow.
Buffer Underrun
A buffer underrun is an interruption in the data flow in the internal memory (e.g. of the re-corder). A buffer underrun results from an interruption in the data flow to the internal buffer. The buffer continues to deliver data until it is finally empty. When recording, data is fed con-tinuously to the recorder's buffer in order to keep a steady flow of data. If the steady flow of data is interrupted, the media becomes unusable. Most modern recorders have a protective mechanism against buffer underruns.

Cache is a faster buffer that is used in various areas of a computer to access larger data vo-lumes faster. Cache ensures a continuous flow of data.
Compact Disc-Recordable is a technology for write-once media. The Orange Book standard defines the storage of audio data and other computer-readable data.
The compressor/decompressor encodes the data for recording or saving digitally and then decodes it for playback. Various software codecs are available such as Cinapak, Indeo, Quicktime, Video for Windows, etc. Hardware codecs include MPEG, H.261, Motion JPEG, etc.
Disc-At-Once refers to a method in which the laser in your recorder burns straight through in one session without turning off and on between each track. This method is best when re-cording Audio CDs you would like to play on your home or car stereo.
With an Audio CD, 75 sectors provide one second of played music. One sector consists of up to 98 frames; one frame contains 24 data bytes and 9 control bytes. Similarly, "frame" de-scribes a full screen in television and video technology. Two successive half images result in a full screen within a second due to interlacing.
An image refers to a single file on the hard drive that contains the image for a complete disc. A disk image can be used to create exact copies on media at a later point in time if problems occur during the write process or if no recorder is connected to your PC. The image requires as much free space on the hard drive as the contents of the original disc.
Jitter refers to an abrupt and undesired change in the signal characteristics. Small gaps oc-cur in the data stream as a result. Audio correction synchronizes the data by overlapping the sectors. This way, the gaps are not audible.
Joliet refers to an extension of the ISO-9660 standard for file names. Joliet was designed by Microsoft in order to represent more characters. The file name can be up to 64 characters long and contain the letters A-Z, a-z, umlauts and the ß.
A label refers to a label on a disc. Some drives, e.g. drives that use LightScribe or Labelflash technology, can transfer labels directly to special media.

Labelflash is a technology with which pictures and texts can be burned on the label or data side of a disc with a laser.
LightScribe is a technology with which pictures or texts can be burned on the label side of discs with a laser.
The MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 audio format is used to reduce the size of audio files to a frac-tion of their original size (factor 1:10) with little loss of quality. You can estimate about 1 MB per minute as opposed to 10 MB for the original files. This value and the quality can vary de-pending on the complexity of the audio signal. The bit rate used can be used as a measure of quality. The higher the bit rate, the better the quality, but also the more memory required.
mp3PRO is an MP3 codec that compresses audio files even more but in lower bit rates and better quality. 64 kBit/s in mp3PRO is the equivalent to 128 kBit/s in MP3.
The Moving Picture Experts Group defined this industry standard for video and audio co-decs. MPEG-1 is part of the MPEG compression family and has the highest compression ra-te. MPEG-1 is the format for video CDs.
The Moving Picture Experts Group defined this industry standard for video and audio co-decs. There is little difference between MPEG-1 and MPEG-2: MPEG-2 is a broadcast stan-dard and better for televisions that are interlaced. MPEG-2 is used as a video format for DVDs.
A multisession refers to completing a disc in multiple cycles. After a first session has been written to the disc, information can then be added in another record because the disc has not been finalized.
Nero Digital
Various MPEG-4 video and audio codecs are collated in Nero Digital and are fully compati-ble with the standard MPEG-4. Nero AG is continuing to develop these. In this way a sub-stantially higher quality of the multi-media data is achieved. Further, additional features such as subtitles have been implemented.
The National Television System Committee Standard is a standard for video and TV in the USA and Japan. NTSC has more individual frames (29.97 frames per second) than PAL, but has fewer horizontal lines (525 lines).

The Phase Alternation Line procedure is the TV standard applicable for Europe. PAL pos-sesses 625 lines per screen and the film transmission speed is 25 pictures per second. The-se are transmitted in the so-called line-jump procedure where a picture with all the odd lines and then a picture with all the even lines are created. This corresponds to a half-picture fre-quency of 50 Hz.
SecurDisc refers to a security technology that protects data carriers from unauthorized ac-cess and duplication. SecurDisc can only be burned and password protected with a Se-curDisc drive. Access with other drives is only possible to a limited extent. The following disc formats are supported, although without the copy protection feature: DVD+R(W), DVD+-R DL, DVD-RAM and CD-R(W).
Subchannel data
Subchannel data on a disc contains additional information, such as CD Text or information on positions.
Track-At-Once refers to a write method in which each track is written to the disc individually. The writing process is interrupted briefly after each track, i.e. the laser starts again for each track. With this write method, it is only possible to continue writing to a DVD sometimes and at a later stage. There is a pause of at least 27ms between tracks, which can be disruptive for Audio CDs.
The Video Compact Disc saves movies and audio/video data in MPEG-1 format. In doing so, the video quality from a VCD is similar to a VHS video. VCDs can store up to 74 minutes of video material including stereo sound on a 650 MB disc. Most optical PC drives and DVD players can play VCDs.
The WAV audio format, also called WAVE or Waveform audio format, is an audio format from Microsoft and uses no data compression. WAV is the counterpart to the AIF format from Apple.

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